I need some assistance with these assignment. further methods : topic: attitudes towards smoking Thank you in advance for the help! Further Research Methods: Topic: Attitudes Towards Smoking In most social setups, people’s attitude is essential in determination unhealthy behaviors such as smoking. Society members’ influence on smokers leads to the development of the latter’s positive attitude mainly as a reinforcing quality. Therefore, positive attitude towards smoking forms the driving force behind persistence of smoking behavior in the society. Research indicates that smokers attitude towards smoking is negative to neutral than positive. Lack of positive global attitudes suggests that other factors influence smoking behavior within the society. The paper will explain the implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking within a society setup that consists of nonsmokers and smokers. It is imperative to understand that smoking also have effects on social and economic systems. Social and economic effects of smoking contribute to the negative attitude about smokers.
However, stigmatized characters of smoking contribute to explicit attitude measures undermined by self-presentational bias. Self-presentational bias could indicate that smokers remain influenced by positive global attitude towards smoking though they may be unwilling to accept. A hypothetical research on self-representation bias would complement self-report measures with indirect measures involving automatic associations. Automatic association measures provide a more precise reflection of attitudes sensitive to self-presentation concerns.
Smokers’ implicit attitudes toward smoking are more positive than in nonsmokers. However, pictorial and verbal smoking stimuli remained implicitly associated with negative attributes rather than positive. It is essential that habitual smokers’ attitudes towards smoking also influences individuals’ desire to continue smoking (Macy et al. 292).
At explicit levels, smokers normally display negative attitudes towards smoking though it may be less compared to nonsmokers. On the contrary, smokers’ global implicit attitude toward smoking remains negative rather than positive. However, there is existence of a neutral implicit attitude towards smoking cues (Vakeffliu et al. 3).
Society believes that smoking have detrimental effects on health. Believes have contributed to social attitude toward smoking that has significantly changed over the years. Social attitude towards smoking that is related to effects on health have led to educational campaigns aimed at enlightening the society. Consequently, the damaging effects of tobacco smoking have contributed to change in social attitudes.
Social attitude and perception about smoking have also impacted hugely among social groups. Most youths associates with others based on attitude towards smoking. Smokers tend to associate with fellow individuals while nonsmokers normally disassociate with the former. The youths form a social class that remains distant from other members of the society (Hennessy, Michael, et al. 721).
Society also views smoking as an immoral act that normally creates disgrace. Negative attitude towards smokers influences social behaviors such as marriage and associations. Most cultures do not allow their children to marry persons from smoking backgrounds. In addition, religious groups also have negative attitudes towards smokers. Such religious groups normally condemn smoking based on church doctrines (Do, Young Kyung, and Mary Ann Bautista 608).
Society normally limits smokers to particular areas such as public smoking houses to avoid their association with nonsmokers. Restricting smokers’ freedom explains the negative social attitude towards smoking. Social attitude also restricts smoking in other public places such as vehicles and airplanes. Such restrictions indicate that smoking does not conform to standard practices that the society considers as moral. Consequently, negative attitude towards smoking and smokers contributes to the emergence of policies aimed at illegalizing tobacco usage within the society. It is imperative that most society’s associates are smoking to immoral behaviors and views it as an act that needs termination.
Ethical concerns and how to ad dress them during the project
Diverse ethical concerns will arise during the report. Ethical considerations during the project will include getting permission from the subjects of study and assuring subjects of utmost confidentiality. Enhancing fairness, honesty, and avoidance of any harm that may result from the research is vital during the project. Informing subjects of all possible risks is a vital ethical concern. Researchers will be responsible for addressing all the ethical concerns that arise during the project.
The study will employ the use of implicit association test (IAT) to ascertain whether global smoking attitudes drives smoking behavior. IAT relates to a social psychological measure designed to detect the strength of an individuals’ relation between mental representations of concepts in memory. IAT involves a computerized reaction against time task that measures the extent of attitude towards an immoral act. The study test would enable the researcher to understand psychological relationship and attitude towards unethical behaviors such as smoking.
Procedure involved would include an initial individualized questionnaire analysis followed by IAT. IAT would help in eliminating dishonest opinions towards smoking.
The pictures below depicts societal implications of smoking effects. Picture 2 confers health hazards associated with smoking. It is imperative that the society have a general negative attitude towards smoking evidently from the picture.
(Adapted from Hennessy, Michael, et al, 2014)
(Adapted from Vakeffliu, Ylli, et al, 2013)
Do, Young Kyung, and Mary Ann Bautista. “Medical Students Tobacco Use And Attitudes Towards Tobacco Control.” Medical Education 47.6 (2013): 607-616.
Hennessy, Michael, et al. “The Effect Of Household Smoking Bans On Household Smoking.” American Journal Of Public Health 104.4 (2014): 721-727.
Macy, Jonathan T., Laurie Chassin, and Clark C. Presson. “The Association between Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Smoking and Support for Tobacco Control Measures.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research 15.1 (2013): 291-296.
Vakeffliu, Ylli, et al. “Tobacco Smoking Habits, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Albanian Nurse Students.” ISRN Pulmonology (2013): 1-4.