Writing a reaction paper

Writing a reaction paper

Instructions for Writing your Reaction Papers

Each paper you select to write about should be one of the journal papers that are being read for the course (see the General Course Outline below for a list of papers). It should be submitted at the beginning of class the day the reading is due. Once you have chosen and carefully read an article from one of the above journals, write a 2 page paper (double-spaced, with one-inch margins, 12 point font Times New Roman) answering the following questions about the described experiment(s). Papers should be two FULL pages in length (you may use a third page if necessary). The first page should be focused on summarizing the article, demonstrating full understanding of the content (see items 1-4 below). The second page should be focused on your reaction or response to the paper (see items 5-7 below). Credit will be awarded based on the content and writing of the papers, so be sure to answer the questions to the best of your ability. Again, you will need to write four reaction papers based on the journal articles (NOT the book readings, NOT the Nisbett chapter, and NOT the Busch, Milrod, & Sandberg (2009) reading).



  1. What is the purpose of the research? According to the article, what background research had been conducted in this area? What are the hypotheses?
  2. What type of research method was used (e.g., description of subjects, what materials were used, and procedures). Please do this for two studies (you do not need to do it for every study if there are 3 or more, but try to pick studies you think were important for the overall journal article).
  3. Identify the independent variable(s) & dependent variable(s)
  4. What were the main results? How do the results of the current studies support and extend the literature reviewed in the introduction?
  5. How does the research relate to topics that (a) you’ve learned in your course OR (b) apply to your everyday life experiences (be specific)?
  6. What critiques do you have about the article? Were there any problems with the design of the studies? What do you think they could have done better? Did the researchers address them? (Try to go beyond what the researchers say in the article! Not surprisingly, researchers do not always point out all the flaws in their own research.) What ethical issues did the researchers confront? How did they address them?

7.     What experimental question did this article raise for you? That is, if you were going to conduct an experiment on the topic of this article using it as background information, what question would you want to explore? Briefly describe how you would explore your question experimentally. Why would your experiment be important?

Response 1: Sociocultural Differences in Perspectives on Aging


·      Respond to at least two colleagues who addressed cultures that are different from the ones you addressed.
·      Share an insight from reading your colleagues’ postings.

·      Describe how you might incorporate the cultural perspectives on aging described by your colleagues into your own social work practice.



Be sure to support your responses with specific references to the resources. If you are using additional articles, be sure to provide full APA-formatted citations for your references.




Colleague 1: BM


Americans are living far longer than they have in the past, with the average age of death at approximately 77 years of age (Ryman, 2003).  This increase in years can possibly be attributed  to our advanced medical findings, ranging from research to cure, which have resulted in prolonging the lives of individuals who otherwise may not have lived as long.  With our citizens living longer, amenities for these individuals have also been revamped, including senior housing facilities and additional units included in nursing homes.  Furthermore, it is an unfortunate reality that the elderly population in our society is often considered as a burden (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman, 2016).  This can typically be heard when people refer to driving behind a senior citizen or shopping in the same stores.  Their habitually slower pace does not always align with our quick-paced, instantly-gratifying society, typical in the United States.  The mental and physical health of the elderly can also have an effect on society, with financial resources being allocated for this population, thus further prolonging their lives (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman, 2016).


In countries including Japan and China, however, the elderly are viewed with a much higher prestige than here in the United States.  Their role within their families, particularly as they age, becomes more ingrained, with the majority of the elderly living with their grown children and their children (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman, 2016).  This becomes the expectation.  In these cultures, the elderly are viewed as wise, possessing a knowledge that can only be obtained with years spent on the planet.  On the contrary if grown children consider a nursing home for their parents, they are actually considered uncaring and non-traditional (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman, 2016).  Additionally, the Indian culture reveres their elderly population, again often living in joint families.  The patriarch in these families is often the grandfather or great grandfather.  It is customary for the grandparents to have a direct hand in raising the grandchildren, including the child care and decision making regarding the children (Ryman, 2003).


The difference between the United States and the other aforementioned viewpoints on aging can most likely be directly linked to the pace of society.  The United States prides itself on technology, economics and the resulting power.  While these are certainly aspects that have crafted America into the country it is today, some may argue that sense of family and the importance of forged relationships have been lost.  This would coincide with the different views our country holds on aging.  Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman (2016) referenced our elderly population as being a burden on society, simply because they cannot maintain the rigor of today’s world.  This is in sharp contrast to other cultures in which the elderly population is revered for their wisdom of experience.  This difference in viewpoint will certainly impact upon social work practice.  It would be essential for the professional to understand the cultural elements that come into play when dealing with the elderly.  A Chinese grandmother, for example, may have a very different story to share than an American grandmother who is being moved to a nursing home.  Cultural competence, yet again, plays such an integral role.


Colleague 2: Sk


The concept of aging and how various society reacts to it may vary in a number of ways; the American culture views aging differently from the Japanese and Latinos. NCBI (2009) states aging in the U.S. occurs against the backdrop of cultural ideologies such as the Protestant work ethic and the American Dream, which define personal worth in terms of active engagement in work, individual achievement, and responsibility for control over one’s own actions. This perspective looks at the American culture as one that looks at the worth of a person in regards to their age and how they function as they age. Aging has more benign meanings in Japan than the U.S. Japanese conceptions of aging are rooted in Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist philosophical traditions that characterize aging as maturity; old age is thus understood as a socially valuable part of life, even a time of “spring” or “rebirth” after a busy period of working and raising children. The Japanese culture sees their elderly as a wealth of knowledge because they have gained so much experience which shows they do not look at what they have to contribute physically. Latinos are another group that their culture embraces their elderly and so they seek to make them an active part of their society because of the insights they have that is cruicial to the upbringing of the younger generations. In Latino cultures the elderly are believed to have inner strength. The elderly also consider themselves to be important members of the family and not ashamed to ask for help; Latino elderly continue to occupy a central role in the family and are treated with respect, status), and authority (MHAGING 2016).


These differences exist simply because of how these society view there elderly, industrialization, and how individuals can contribute to the advancement of their society. Zastrow, & Kirst-Ashman, (2016) states our society fears aging more than other societies do; industrialization resulted in a demand for laborers who are energetic, agile, and strong. With this industrialization more modern societies like the United States would embrace this change because it propels them on the economic ladder which is not possible with elderly working so they are better suited in settings that are far less demanding which unfortunately makes them redundant. Whereas Japanese and Latinos have advanced with the time they have not lost the concept that their elderly are valuable so they keep them as their wealth of knowledge instead of looking at them as not being valuable to their society anymore. Different perspectives on aging might impact social work practice significantly because the service the social workers will advocate for will be highly dependent on how these cultures view the need of help. In the Japanese and Latinos culture it is more likely for them to rely on their family for help and support in taking care of them when they are older so they will deem the social work agencies as interfering. This will affect the way they communicate with the social worker so it all comes down to the social worker being culturally competent which will allow them to be very empathetic and sensitive to these individuals in order to develop a good relationship. Elders in the American culture may not be as sensitive to working with the social workers because they are more cases of elderly living alone and without families so they need the help of social services. Suffice it to say that social worker have to be competent in any culture that they work with in order to advocate for services that will empower them in their later years.


Response 2Social Policy: Child Abuse and Neglect


·      Respond to at least two colleagues who selected a different position from the one you selected by suggesting how the policy initiative can be achieved.

·      Be sure to identify any challenges or obstacles you see in passing and implementing the initiative.


Support your response with specific references to the resources. Be sure to provide full APA citations for your references.



Colleague 1: RW


The description from the NASW policy statement on child abuse or neglect would be “authorities should leave nonoffending parents or guardians and their children in their own homes and remove the batterers to preserve the stability of children’s caregiving and residence in domestic violence cases.” (NASW, 2008). A policy initiative that I would initiate would be expand on this idea of allowing the nonoffending parent and the children a place to stay. I would initiate a policy that would help parents who may be living in the homes of the offending parents a temporary place to stay while the gain financial assistance to ensure safety of the children. This is similar to some policies already in place, especially in DCS, regarding relative placement. The idea behind the NASW statement and existing policies are created to minimize the traumatic experience on the children, as well as to maintain a sense of familiarity for the children. Therefore making any removals due to domestic violence an easier transition for the children, and other victims involved, as well as ensuring safety of all people involved.


NASW. (2009). Social work speaks. Washington, DC: NASW Press. 42-48




Colleague 2: DP


NASW Policy Statement on Child Abuse and Neglect Position


I chose the position of “Children have the right to be treated with respect as individuals and to receive culturally sensitive services. Children have a right to express their opinions about their lives and have those opinions considered in all placement and judicial proceedings” (National Association of Social Workers, 2005, p. 46).  While I think that children cannot fully vouch for themselves especially depending on their age, I do believe that children have the ability to express themselves in one form or another.  Sometimes we do not give children enough credit as to having their own thought process as well as how and what they comprehend.  Now, what would be conflicting is if the child wants one thing and it conflicts with the child’s safety.  Then of course appropriate action should be taken.


Policy Initiative


The policy initiative I would be in favor for is better accommodation in services and treatment for/towards children in regards to children who have been abused and neglected.  It would be more in depth as to appropriateness to age as well as maturity to include safety in all aspects.  Some children are highly adapted culturally speaking and some prefer to stay in that setting or to have respect in cultural mannerisms.  Then there are other children whom are adamant with what they are comfortable in and around and have preferences to their individual liking.  While all accommodations might not be made satisfactorily according to the specific individual child, there is still the ability to strive in giving all of what is available to a child or to respect a child’s unique wishes and likings.

Georgia’s State Policies


Georgia’s child abuse policy for court procedures outlines that within the first 72 hours professional/officials will decipher what will happen with the child (Court Appointed Special Advocates for Children, n.d., pp. 3-4).  The initiative I offered up could alter the policy by extending this timeline of when a child is taken into custody and who determines what.  This I believe could happen because depending on what the child expresses (whether it is concerns or the direction the child wants to go) can make this a lengthier process so that the child can elaborate and get the respect as well as specific services needed to cater to the child.




Court Appointed Special Advocates for Children. (n.d.). Georgia Laws Governing Child Abuse. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjK2reakejPAhUJNiYKHXFiAIYQFggcMAA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.gacasa.org%2Fintranet%2Fref_library%2FChapter%25201%2520%26%25202%2520Handout%2520-%2520Georgia%2520Laws%2520Governing%2520Child%2520Abuse.doc&usg=AFQjCNFFrKjNE_dvrGzw7gh7X5icf3mghQ



National Association of Social Workers. (2005). Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from http://www.socialworkers.org/pressroom/swmonth/2012/toolkit/standards/Child Abuse and Neglect.PDF