People thought the globe was the midpoint of the cosmos (Bacon 1960). That meant that the moon, planets, and the sun revolved around the earth. Europeans used ideas based on the physical world while Romans and Greeks believed in the Bible. However, attitudes changed in the mid-1500. A spirit of curiosity gave rise to a scientific revolution (Burns 2003). Scholars were willing to question old ideas and the level of focus was improved with much observation. Europeans were leading in the exploration leading to the discovery of new lands and the establishment of universities. Francis Bacon, an English writer, assisted in fostering this approach. He urged scientists to base their opinions on what they could see in the world (Bacon 1960). R. Descartes used mathematics and logic to exert his immense influence. In the mid-1600, Isaac Newton established the law of gravity. He used mathematics to show the law of gravity controlled the motion of the planets and objects on earth (Burns 2003). Paris became the European cultural center in 1700 (Oslar 2000) where people from entire Europe gathered to new ideas about enlightenment. Marie Therese became popular for hosting and funding ideas on enlightenment.
According to the letters by Isaac Newton, religion and uniqueness were necessary for innovation. In the letters, Newton said that the discovery came as a result of patient thought. The letters contained significant propositions but were imperfect in some parts. According to Isaac Newton, no matter how the matter was scattered, it would be infinitely attracted towards the center (Hankins 1985). This meant that at the center there would have a particle that is attracted to all other particles at equal measure (Goodman 1973). This became known as a state of perfect equilibrium. According to the observations of the great instauration by Francis Bacon, human intellect is responsible for its own challenges and difficulties (Oslar 2000). Therefore, a man should use the help at his disposal to address the difficulties that he faces. This exposed the levels of ignorance and the damage it causes to the quality of life. He argued that through human efforts and determination life can be restored to the perfect condition or reduced to a better condition than it is now (Burns 2003).