ESSAY EXAM 1, VERSION D1
ANSWER QUESTIONS 1 – 4.
ALSO ANSWER QUESTION 5 OR QUESTION 6.
- List and describe briefly the consequences of a market orientation, as proposed by Kohli and Jaworski. Under what circumstances, specifically, might a market orientation not be related strongly to business performance (according to Kohli and Jaworski)?
- What is the “self-deceiving cycle,” per Theodore Levitt (’60)? What is the error of analysis that many companies / industries commit? If industries are not a goods-producing process, what sort of process are they, per Levitt?
- How do Narver and Slater (’90) reconcile their components of market orientation
with Kohli and Jaworski’s (’90) components of market orientation? (Be sure and
name the components in your answer.) Describe any reference, if any, that Kohli
and Jaworski make to studies by Narver and Slater.
- Why do Kohli and Jaworski (’90) not use the term marketing orientation? Name and discuss the environmental moderators of the market orientation – business performance linkage as discussed by Kohli and Jaworski (’90).
- Kotler and Levy discussed products, consumers, and marketing tools in terms of organizational marketing. How did they define products and consumers, and what marketing tools do they identify? What do they mean by “everything in an organization talks?” Do Kotler and Levy refer to marketing as an art, science, or both art and science?
- Summarize Neil Borden’s discussion of the “marketing mix.” What market forces bear on the “mix?”