Topic: State Specific Laws

Topic: State Specific Laws
Your instructor will assign one of the topics listed below. You are required to do research on your state specific law (based on your current state of residence) about your topic. In your discussion, please make sure you include the following:

  • The specific age by which the adolescent can consent without parental consent
  • The state law or regulation specific to your topic
  • Disclosure of Health Information to Parents/Guardians (requirements)
  • Cite your reference- must be from a reputable source

Topic   Treatment of Alcohol –state Pennsylvania




Why did the Sarbanes–Oxley Act become law?

W6 DQ1 100-150 words


Why did the Sarbanes–Oxley Act become law? In your opinion, does it provide any real protection to investors? Why or why not?

Defective and unsafe product

For this week, you will be researching two lawsuits in the legal database – one based on a defective and unsafe product, and one based on deceptive warranty and advertising. See below and discuss and answer the following:

  1. The legal duty of manufacturers is to provide safe products in the marketplace today.  Research using NEXIS-Uni Legal Database link below and provide a case within the last three years of a defective product case pursuant to either a design defect, manufacturing defect or failure to warn cause of action. Be sure to explain the law in all three areas and be specific as to terminology, the case facts and the holding and decision in the lawsuit. A case that results in a dismissal is fine as long as you are thorough in demonstrating your understanding of the law.

Use the legal database here – NEXIS-Uni Legal Database link: or

Please be sure answers are researched, informed, and substantiated by citing sources used at the bottom of your discussion post.   See the Strayer Writing Standards link in BB for help following citation requirements.

Federal State balance law homework

Federal State balance law homework


1. According to which school of thought is law the command of a sovereign?

2. According to the legal realist school of thought, _____.

3. The historical school of law _____.

4. A code-law system _____.

5. The _____ would use the law to overturn the hierarchical structures of domination in the modern society.

6. State and local courts must honor both federal law and the laws of the other states. Which of the following is true?

7. Which of the following about the federal court system is true?

8. Identify the correct statement about the Federal-State balance.

9. Which of the following principles implies that the same parties can not take up the same dispute in another court at another time?

10. Which of the following is true about alternative methods of resolving disputes?

11. Based on the supremacy clause, the _____ holds that state and federal laws that conflict must yield to the superior law, which is federal law.

12. Article I of the Constitution deals with _____.

13. The _____ clause of the Fifth Amendment ensures that the government does not take private property without just compensation.

14. When Congress uses its power under the commerce clause, it can expressly state that it wishes to have _____.

15. The power of small states is magnified by the Senate’s _____, which currently requires 60 out of 100 senators to vote to bring a bill to the floor for an up-or-down vote.

16. Which of the following is an ideal condition for a free market?

17. The _____ establishes an agency’s authority in a particular area of the economy.

18. The _____ governs all agency procedures in both hearings and rulemaking.

19. According to the Freedom of Information Act, _____.

20. An individual or a company may challenge agency action where such action is _____:

21. What are the multilateral treaties sponsored by an international agency known as?

22. In a contract, national or international, the parties may specify the court where any disputes between the parties will be settled. This specification is known as the _____.

23. The _____ doctrine comes into play when courts in two different nation states both have subject matter and personal jurisdiction over the matter.

24. The _____ is a tax imposed on goods when they enter a country.

25. The Supreme Court has enunciated a doctrine governing claims to recover for acts of expropriation. The doctrine is known as the doctrine of _____.

  • class=css-1j18aoo6 years ago


Intellectual Property and Technology

Intellectual   Property and Technology

Ashford 6: – Week 5 – Discussion 1

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Intellectual   Property and Technology

Internet domain names are linked to trademark issues. Technology makes it easy to copy and distribute music and movies without paying royalties.  Business conducted on the internet raise security and privacy issues.  What legal concerns are raised by these issues? Predict which of these issues will be of major concern in the future in regard to the law and business practices.
Guided Response: Review your peer’s posts. Respond to at least two of your classmates describing whether you agree with their predictions or if you see the issues differently. Explain.

Assignment 2

You are a senior auditor at the CPA firm of Aoife & Josephine, LLC. Your manager

(professor) calls you into her office to discuss the use of Tableau, data analytic and

visualization software, on an upcoming audit for a client. She highly suggests you learn

how to use Tableau to perform data analytics on sales revenue. Further, she suggests

you read the following articles to prepare for this audit:

• Cao, M., R. Chychyla, and T. Stewart. 2015. Big Data analytics in financial

statement audits. Accounting Horizons 29 (2): 423–429.


•Raphael, J. 2017. Rethinking the audit. Journal of Accountancy 223 (4): 28–32.


•On the ICAEW Website, you may download an excellent report: (2016). Data analytics for external auditors. [online] Available at:

data-analytics—web-version.ashx [Accessed 13 Jul. 2019].

III. Steps to Completion

Step 1: Read the articles recommended by your manager (professor) to gain an

understanding about how big data, data analytics, and new technologies are

transforming external audits.

Step 2: Read the case: Using Visualization Software in the Audit of Revenue

Transactions to Identify Anomalies, which is posted in LEO: Contents>Course

Resources>Projects & Rubrics.

Step 3: Review resources to learn how to use Tableau in Appendix A on the last page

of this document.Collaborate with your online discussion group to learn Tableau tips.

Step 4: Complete the case requirements that start on page 35 of Using Visualization

Software in the Audit of Revenue Transactions to Identify Anomalies.

Step 5: Complete one additional requirement not included in the case; an audio-

enhanced presentation or video of yourself presenting your findings.

Prepare a video or audio-enhanced PowerPoint presentation to present your

findings to your manager (professor) and audit team

Sexual harassment law assignment

Sexual harassment law assignment

In the last few weeks as a human resources (HR) consultant at Elora Jean & Co., you have reviewed several issues, made recommendations, and developed policies. In addition to the issues previously reviewed, the owner has advised you of the following situation:

A charge was recently filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) by an employee. The charge states that two female employees in one of the nonunion satellite offices were subject to repeated and unwelcome sexual advances by their male supervisor. The charge further states that the two women previously complained to the supervisor’s immediate superior, letting him know that they felt uncomfortable and would like the behavior to stop. The harassment did not stop; rather, it continued over a period of 3 months. At that point, the female employees decided that the company would not help. They decided to file a claim with the EEOC, stating they were being sexually harassed at work.

The owner is certain that the company can put together a response that will clear it of the charge, and she asked if you felt they had a strong case. You state that you are not legal counsel for Elora Jean & Co.; however, you request permission to investigate the claim before giving your thoughts on the company’s documentation for legal defense.

Given your knowledge of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, you are concerned with Elora Jean & Co.’s ability to defend the EEOC charge. You plan to engage in your own investigation into the claim to learn more about the complaints made, who had knowledge, what type of investigation was conducted (if any), and what actions were taken. As part of your investigation, you learn that Elora Jean & Co. does not have any policies or procedures relating to sexual harassment in the workplace.

You need to address and advise the owner of Elora Jean & Co. on courses of action. Present your evaluation in a written memo to the owner. As you prepare your strategy for investigating the claim, consider the following:

  • What is the legal definition of sexual harassment?
  • What investigation process should Elora Jean & Co. have engaged in when the claims were first made? Why will that be important to the defense of the EEOC charge?
  • What is the legal liability for Elora Jean & Co. if the EEOC investigation finds the charge to be factual with employer knowledge of the events? Consider the options of mediation versus litigation with regard to organizational cost.
  • What elements would you recommend be included in a sexual harassment policy?
  • What should Elora Jean & Co. do to prevent this type of charge in the future?
  • Research and briefly summarize a recent case of sexual harassment that was won by the employee. Provide information relating to the financial outcome of the case.
  • What implications does the Civil Rights Act of 1991 have for employers?
  • What are your overall recommendations for the owner with regard to preparing a response to the EEOC charge?

Inequality issue in Canada

Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on inequality issue in canada. level of inequality in the developing countries was initially higher, but after 1980 the level of concentration of incomes in the developed countries significantly increased. The reason was not only the difficulties faced by the middle class but the fact that the rich became richer.

Notwithstanding that Cаnada successfully resolves the problem of inequality and the social mobility in the society is high, the income distribution of the population remains unfair: the incomes of 1% of the richest class are growing during last decades, while the incomes of poor continue to decrease. “Governments are also downwardly redistributive. The most obvious effect is through the tax and transfer system (although the progressivity of Canada’s tax system has diminished). Government spending also redistributes income downward. This is partly because public sector pay scales are more compressed than the private sector — with a higher floor and a lower ceiling. As public sector activities form a larger proportion of GDP, inequality moderates. The retrenchment of the Canadian public sector since 1992 has thus contributed to the issue of redistribution” (Growth of inequality in Canada cannot be denied). Moreover, the inequality in Canada grows faster than in the USA and other countries. The inequality is traced among separate citizens, towns and regions. In Atlantic regions inequality is less developed in comparison to the rich provinces like Alberta. Inequality is also growing in big cities like Vancouver, Toronto and Montréal. There is a connection between the level of income and the duration of life. The inequality of income is highly expressed among native Canadians and other residents. Indians have fewer employment opportunities and they very often are not able to satisfy basic needs. The reasons for inequality are too serious differences in salaries for qualified and non-qualified workers, shifts in the market&nbsp.structure, the growth of the self-employed population, allowances reduction. “When growth is looked at over the long term, the trade-off between efficiency and equality may not exist.

Assignment 2

Hi, need to submit a 1500 words paper on the topic Understanding Organizational Culture. This evaluation program will pay great concern to the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW) Code of Ethics 2010 and the Australian Evaluation Society. The Australian Evaluation Society (AES) aims to encourage and promote good practices in the evaluation process. In its purpose, AES advice that every evaluation should be in such a way to depict and prove the high level of independence from any parties that may have an interest in influencing the process. Like in this case, funders of the evaluation program and the political class should not involve in the process. The involvement of such people may lead to flouted and compromised findings and accreditation based on realm performance. The management’s unfortunate involvement may also flout the findings as they will seek to influence the elimination of truth, reflecting negative practices and advocating only for positive comments. Instead of looking or paying attention to interest groups, evaluators will only focus on the evaluation’s goals and mission to provide unbiased assessment results. The evaluation process through the evaluators will also ensure total concern for human dignity and privacy. Evaluators will also ensure that the evaluation comments are derived from the information gathered during the evaluation process. The evaluation will also heed the provisions of the Codes of Ethics adopted by the Australian Association of Social Workers. Evaluators will examine if the organization and the staff have met all or part of the codes or ethics dictating their individual practices.

According to Yes (2010, pg. 13), Australia has policies defining good practice standards for social workers operating within its borders. Policy number 4.1 of Australian social workers’ practice standards require that all workers maintain a high level of responsibility and diligence in their works. They can decide the social values to exhibit in relevance to the circumstance or context of work.

Recent Supreme Court decisions

Recent Supreme Court decisions

  • Select a more recent Supreme Court decisions (less than 2 years old) that had a significant impact on law enforcement. What are the facts of the case and what are the impacts of the decision on the police administrator?
  • Describe the relationship between the police agency/police administrator and the media. In what ways are there conflicts? In what ways are there partnerships?

Law Homework

Write an essay of at least 500 words discussing the reasons for the two new auditing roles in Oracle 12c. Why did Oracle consider them necessary? What problems do they solve? How do they benefit companies?

Do not copy without providing proper attribution. This paper will be evaluated through SafeAssign.

Write in essay format not in outline, bulleted, numbered or other list format.

Use the five paragraph format. Each paragraph must have at least five sentences. Include 3 quotes with quotation marks and cited in-line and in a list of references. Include an interesting meaninful title.

Include at least one quote from each of 3 different articles. Use the Research Databases available from the Danforth Library, not Google.   Place the words you copied (do not alter or paraphrase the words) in quotation marks and cite in-line (as all work copied from another should be handled). The quotes should be full sentences (no more, less) and should be incorporated in your discussion (they do not replace your discussion) to illustrate or emphasize your ideas.

Cite your sources in a clickable reference list at the end. Do not copy without providing proper attribution (quotation marks and in-line citations).



With the separate-but-equal decision of Plessy v. Ferguson in 1876, the national government tried to sweep the conflict between equality and freedom under the rug. By announcing in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 that “separate is inherently unequal,” the national government faced the tension between freedom and equality and the fact that more of one usually means less of the other. The meaning of equality also creates difficulties. Many who agree on the need for equality of opportunity will not support measures they think are geared to produce equality of outcome. The struggle for civil rights also illustrates the conflict between pluralism and majoritarianism. In accepting the demands of African American citizens, the national government acts in a way that is more pluralist than majoritarian. As Chapter 1 pointed out, majoritarian democracy does what the majority wants and thus may allow discrimination against minorities, even though the substantive outcome (inequality) seems undemocratic.

Thus, questions about what kind of public policies should be adopted to achieve equality are often highly controversial. If the nation wants to promote racial and gender equality among doctors or sheet metal workers, for example, it may design policies to help previously disadvantaged and underrepresented groups gain jobs in these areas. This practice, however, may lead to charges of reverse discrimination.

African Americans seeking civil rights not only had to contend with being members of a minority group, but they also were largely excluded from the electoral process. Under the leadership of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), they adopted the strategies of lobbying legislators and pressing claims before the judiciary, the branch of government least susceptible to majoritarian influences. Later, as the civil rights movement grew (and as majority opinion became more hospitable to their cause), they emphasized the importance of legislation as a method of achieving equality and also used the techniques of civil disobedience to challenge laws they believed to be unjust. This quest for racial equality remains incomplete. A part of a mandatory response to a new UN treaty, the U.S. State Department reported in 2000 that racial discrimination still persists in the United States. Under the same treaty, advocates of racial equality may appeal to an international authority to end racial or other forms of discrimination.

The women’s movement offers an interesting contrast to the case of African Americans. Women are not actually a minority group; they are a majority of the population. Yet, in the struggle to pass the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), pluralism prevailed! Although a majority of Americans favored the amendment, it failed. The amending process, by requiring extraordinary majorities, gives enormous power to minorities bent on thwarting a particular cause.


Two Conceptions of Equality

Throughout much of American history, civil rights—the powers and privileges supposedly guaranteed to individuals and protected from arbitrary removal at the hand of government—have often been denied to certain citizens on the basis of their race or sex. The pursuit of civil rights in America has been a story of the search for social and economic equality. But people differ on what equality means. Most Americans support equal opportunity, but many are less committed to equality of outcome.

The Civil War Amendments

After the Civil War, the Thirteenth, Fourteen, and Fifteenth amendments were passed to ensure freedom and equality for African Americans. In addition, as a response to the black codes, Congress passed civil rights acts in 1866 and 1875 to guarantee civil rights and access to public accommodations. While the legislative branch was attempting to strengthen African American civil rights, the judicial branch seemed intent on weakening them through a number of decisions that gave states room to maneuver around civil rights laws. States responded with a variety of measures limiting the rights of African Americans, including poll taxes, grandfather clauses that prevented them from voting, and Jim Crow laws that restricted their use of public facilities. These restrictions were upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson, which justified them under the separate-but-equal doctrine. By the end of the nineteenth century, segregation was firmly and legally entrenched in the South.


The Dismantling of School Segregation

The NAACP led the campaign for African American civil rights. Its activists used the mechanism of the courts to press for equal facilities for African Americans and then to challenge the constitutionality of the separate-but-equal doctrine itself. In 1954, in Brown v. Board of Education, a class-action suit, the Supreme Court reversed its earlier decision in the Plessy case. It ruled that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” and that segregated schools must be integrated “with all deliberate speed” under the direction of the federal courts. The Court thus ordered an end to school segregation that had been imposed by law (de jure segregation), but in many parts of the country segregation persisted, because African Americans and whites lived in different areas and sent their children to local schools (de facto segregation). This problem led the courts to require the unpopular remedy of bussing African American and white children as a means of integrating schools. By 1974, however, the Supreme Court began to limit bussing as ordered by the judicial branch.


The Civil Rights Movement

The NAACP’s use of the legal system ended school segregation and achieved some other, more limited, goals, but additional pressure for desegregation in all aspects of American life grew out of the civil rights movement. The first salvo in the civil rights movement came when African Americans in Montgomery, Alabama, boycotted the city’s bus system to protest Rosa Parks’s arrest and the law that prohibited African Americans from sitting in the front of buses. Under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr., the movement grew, and civil rights activities, including nonviolent civil disobedience, spread.

In the early 1960s, President Kennedy was gradually won over to supporting the civil rights movement. In 1963, he asked Congress to outlaw segregation in public accommodations. Following Kennedy’s death, President Lyndon Johnson made passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 his top legislative priority, and the bill passed despite a long debate and filibuster in the Senate. More civil rights legislation followed in 1965 and 1968. This time, the legality of civil rights acts was upheld by the Supreme Court.

Having civil rights laws on the books does not mean discrimination will end once and for all, however. For one thing, the courts must interpret the laws and apply them to individual cases. In the Grove City College case, the Supreme Court offered a very narrow interpretation of a civil rights law, in effect taking the teeth out of the legislation. Congress reasserted its original, more sweeping intent in the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988.

Meanwhile, the Court, with a new conservative majority in the ascendancy, continued to issue decisions limiting the scope of previous civil rights rulings. Civil rights groups looked to Congress to restore rights previously recognized, but presidential vetoes scuttled such measures until 1991.

Despite Dr. King’s commitment to nonviolence, the struggle for civil rights was not always a peaceful one. White violence against civil rights workers included murders and bombings. By the late 1960s, racial violence had increased as African Americans demanded their rights, but many whites remained unwilling to recognize them. The African American nationalist movements, often militant, promoted “black power” and helped instill racial pride in African Americans.


Civil Rights for Other Minorities

Civil rights legislation won through the struggles of African Americans also protects other minorities. Native Americans, Latinos, and disabled Americans were also often victims of discrimination. Native Americans were not even considered citizens until 1924. The Indian reservations established by the U.S. government were poverty-stricken. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the frustrations of Native Americans erupted into militancy. By the mid-1970s and early 1980s, they began to win important legal victories, including compensation for land taken by the U.S. government. Recently, new entrepreneurial tribal leadership of Indian tribes has capitalized on the special status of their tribes and enjoyed economic success by sponsoring casino gambling ventures.

Latinos who migrated to the United States seeking economic opportunities found poverty and discrimination instead. This problem was compounded by the language barrier and the inattention of public officials to their needs. Latinos, too, have used the courts to gain greater representation on governing bodies. Recently, they have begun to be successful in obtaining elected and appointed political offices.

Building on the model of existing civil rights laws, disabled Americans managed to gain recognition as an oppressed minority and, through the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act, receive the protection of a right of access to employment and facilities.


Homosexual Americans

Though gays and lesbians have made significant progress, they have not yet succeeded in passing a complete civil rights law protecting their rights. The 2000 Supreme Court decision in Boy Scouts of America v. Dale illustrated the continued struggles of gays and lesbians for civil rights. The court ruled that homosexuals could be excluded from leadership positions in the organization.

The demand for equality has recently been extended to the institution of marriage. In 2003, the State of Massachusetts recognized same-sex marriages.


Gender and Equal Rights: The Women’s Movement

Civil rights have long been denied to women, partly as a result of policies designed to protect women from ill-treatment. Only after a long struggle did women win the right to vote under the Nineteenth Amendment that was passed in 1920. Yet gaining the right to vote did not bring the equality that women hoped for. Discrimination continued in the workplace and elsewhere. It took legislation such as the 1963 Equal Pay Act, the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 to prohibit these other forms of discrimination against women. In the early 1970s, the Court began to strike down gender-based discriminations that could not be justified as serving an important government purpose. In 1996, the Court applied a new standard of “skeptical scrutiny” to acts denying rights based on sex. This new standard makes distinctions based on sex almost as suspect as those based on race.

For many years, the Court proved reluctant to use the Fourteenth Amendment as the basis for guaranteeing women’s rights. As a result, proponents of equal rights for women sought an amendment to ensure that women’s rights stood on a clear constitutional footing. Although the ERA was ratified by 35 states, it fell three states short of the minimum number required for adoption and did not become the law of the land, although many states eventually adopted their own ERAs. Some scholars argue that, in practice, the Supreme Court has since implemented the equivalent of the ERA through its decisions. Affirmative Action: Equal Opportunity or Equal Outcome?

The Johnson administration started a number of programs to overcome the effects of past discrimination by extending opportunities to groups previously denied rights. These affirmative action programs involved positive or active steps taken to assist members of groups formerly denied equality of opportunity.

These programs soon led to charges of reverse discrimination. The Court, however, has found some role for affirmative action programs. In the Bakke decision, a split court held that race could be one of several constitutionally permissible admissions criteria. In other cases, the Court has allowed the use of quotas to correct past discriminatory practices. In the Adarand case, however, the Court decided that programs that award benefits based on race must themselves be held up to a strict scrutiny standard—a test few could pass. Based on the Adarand case, a federal court in 1996 rejected the use of race or ethnicity as a condition for admission to the University of Texas law school. The Supreme Court sent a mixed message in its review of the University of Michigan affirmative action policies in 2003. The court ruled that an undergraduate affirmative action formula was unconstitutional, but that a law school admissions standard that included a racial preference was acceptable.


Essential Facts and Information-for assignments and tests

  1. Civil Rights-Laws are found in the constitution under the 14th amendment and within a series of civil rights acts.See the link on the major civil rights acts

In addition to this chart there is also legislation protecting the disabled and the aged. Civil rights became legal and enforceable under the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment Even though this provision passed it was interpreted by the conservative courts to still retain discrimination . The 14th amendment states the states cannot deny equal protections in their laws to favor one racial group over another. The post civil war amendments took control over the states in terms of what laws they can pass that are discriminatory in nature. This is another reason why and how federalism changed in America.

  1. These rights are positive freedom rights where the government must enforce these rights using the agencies of government.
  2. Parties can sue the government and private businesses that engage in discriminatory practices, unlike civil liberties where you can only sue governmental institutions. See the Civil Rights Act of 1964


The Civil Rights Act of 1964

President Lyndon B. Johnson considered civil rights his top legislative priority. Within months after he assumed office, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the most comprehensive legislative attempt ever to erase racial discrimination in the United States. Among its many provisions, the act:

  • Entitled all persons to “the full and equal enjoyment” of goods, services, and privileges in places of public accommodation without discrimination on the grounds of race, color, religion, or national origin
  • Established the right to equality in employment opportunities
  • Strengthened voting rights legislation
  • Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and charged it with hearing and investigating complaints of job discrimination
  • Provided that funds could be withheld from federally assisted programs that were administered in a discriminatory manner

President Johnson’s goal was a “great society.” Soon a constitutional amendment and a series of civil rights laws were in place to help him meet his goal:

  • The Twenty-fourth Amendment, ratified in 1964, banned poll taxes in primary and general elections for national office.
  • The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 focused on education and training to combat poverty.
  • The Voting Rights Act of 1965 empowered the attorney general to send voter registration supervisors to areas in which fewer than half the eligible minority voters had been registered. This act has been credited with doubling black voter registration in the South in only five years.
  • The Fair Housing Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the rental or sale of most housing.
  1. These rights protect certain groups from discrimination. The protected groups are as follows- race, color, creed, women, the elderly, sexual orientation, and the disabled. These groups can sue under various civil rights acts by going first to the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission ( a regulatory agency) to submit a complaint free of charge if they think they have been discriminated against. This is one manifestation of the value of positive freedom.
  2. Equality is now part of our legal structure starting in 1868 onward. The federal government has an affirmative action program for federal employees and for government contracts. Some states under federalism have affirmative action programs. California in the 2020 elections still bans affirmative action programs.
  3. The Civil Rights Movement is responsible for producing a greater degree of equality in schools, employment and housing. School segregation was banned by the supreme court in 1954. history of the Brown Decision of 1964
  4. Plessy v. Ferguson Case- The supreme court was very conservative in 1896 they stated that equal protection means that segregation can exist as long as governments provide facilities equal in quality or about the same. What did equal protection mean in 1896?

This ruling was in effect until the Brown Decision, some 58 years. This meant that the states could legally practice segregation in public accommodations , housing, schools, and employment. The south had black codes and Jim Crow laws that were considered perfectly legal until the famous katzenbach v. McClung decision that we already looked at in an earlier module.(1964)

8 see all major civil rights laws in this linkMajor civil rights laws



Use the lecture, links, and textbook to answer these questions.

  1. Civil Rights are different than Civil Liberties. Explain positive and negative freedom as they apply to these different set of rights.
  2. Define what a civil right is? Where do these rights appear in the constitution?
  3. Can you sue private businesses for civil rights violations?
  4. Copy the portions of the 14th amendment that prohibit the states from violating civil rights?

5 Go to the link on the Brown Decision and summarize the facts, laws, and ruling in this case?

  1. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited specific forms of discrimination. What forms of discrimination were prohibited and what groups are protected under this law?
  2. The equal protection clause of the 14th amendment provides that all laws must be applied equally regardless of race or ethnicity etc. What was the old equal protection standard as defined in the Plessy case? see the link or textbook for the answer.


Discussion (need 200 words)

A controversial area involving civil rights v. religious liberty comes into play when these rights conflict with one another. Should a devoutly religious bakery owner be allowed to assert the religious liberty right when denying gay customers service? There is a supreme court ruling on this case. Read it and comment explaining your personal opinion.

Law homework help

Law homework help

Assignment Content

  1. Law homework help 1. After a defendant receives a guilty verdict, there is more work to be done. This assignment allows you to explore sentencing options as you continue to think about the case your learning team worked on in Week 3. Read the ruling carefully and return to the case specifics in Week 3 if you need a refresher. Refer to How Courts Work: Steps in a Trial: Plea Bargaining from the American Bar Association website as you work on this assignment.The ruling for State v. Stu Dents is in and the defendant, your law firm’s client, was found guilty. As a paralegal, your task now is to help the attorney consider the sentencing options for the client and determine what to propose to the court.
  2. the Ruling on State v. Stu Dents. Use this information as the basis for your sentencing proposal.

    Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word sentencing proposal in which you address the following:

    • Formulate 2 distinct sentencing arguments.
    • Identify the desired outcome of each punishment. Is a plea bargain a consideration? If so, what is that desired outcome?
    • Identify alternative and intermediate sanctions.
    • Explain how the Eighth Amendment influences the outcomes of this case.
    • Format your paper according to APA guidelines.
    • Threats to Emotional Objectivity Essay


    • Assignment 2
    • Consider a series of potential threats to your objectivity and write an essay response. Consider the following:
      1. How might your own social roles (e.g., son, daughter, mother, father, student, ex-husband or wife, caretaker, etc.) be a source of interference and loss of objectivity when encountering certain individuals or specific problems in your workplace? (Please be certain to discuss your specific faith belief system in this section, as that tends to be a significant part of one’s identity).
      2. Identify at least 2 “themes” or “issues” that arouse an emotional response (i.e., frustration, anger, disappointment, exasperation, overwhelming sadness, etc.) in you. For example, themes of emotional dependency, victimization, anger-management problems, irresponsibility, poor moral choices, authority, etc. Then discuss how these themes might interfere with your ability to remain objective while encountering a person presenting with similar concerns. Again, please comment on how this may or may not interfere with your faith beliefs. You may choose to use each of these three questions as separate subheadings in your essay.

      The essay should be 3-4 pages of text, plus a title page and reference page. No abstract needed. Paper should be in proper APA format. Please remember proper in-text citations. Please review the APA publication manual or Purdue OWL website as a resource

  • Why do you believe schedule issues often cause the most conflicts on projects. Why is it difficult to use project management software well? Discuss below three suggestions for improving IT project quality.

    · Strong Leadership

    · Understanding the cost of quality

    · Providing a good work place

    Note: 500 words with intext citations with 5 references must.