Write 15 pages with APA style on MS Project and Critical Path Analysis (1 Day Training Program for Level 6 UG Students). The report outlines the training content and other resources as per initial requirements communicated by Mr. Smart. The program specifically focuses on using MS Project and CPA in Project Management Methodology. Project Management Ltd. (PML) has been invited to prepare the project management plan for Big Idea Ltd. The project is a one day training program on ‘project management and the use of MS Project and Critical Path Analysis (CPA)’ for level 6 undergraduate students. The project plan, including costing, marketing and controlling will need to be incorporated in the report. Big Ideas Ltd. has approached us to prepare the plan for the one day training program and requires us to be associated on it throughout the project life cycle, from doing the feasibility study to completion of the project. Although, the company has started the feasibility study for the project, it requires PML to start from this stage of the project. The project is a one day training program aimed at level 6 undergraduate students of all universities. It is intended to teach the students the importance and use of MS Project and the Critical Path Analysis (CPA) in Project Management. As students are set to enter the professional world after college, their knowledge and skills at Project Management tools and techniques would be handy in carrying out their day-to-day management and reporting activities easily. Defining project requirements Big Ideas Ltd. expects the consulting team from PML to carry out the following tasks: a. Define the team’s approach to developing the plan using the Project Life Cycle. b. Develop a scope statement. c. Outline the main themes for the training day, with a brief statement of each presentation. d. Develop a work breakdown structure and explain it. e. Include a suitable team structures for each phase of the project. f. Estimate time and cost durations of activities both before and on the day. g. Construct a Gantt chart to determine the baseline cost and duration of the project and analyse it. h. Provide a process for monitoring and controlling the project. i. Construct an outline project risk register. j. Conduct a Stakeholder Analysis of the project. and k. Provide a recommendation. Definition of project management Firstly, we define what project management is and its scope. “Project management is concerned with the overall planning and co-ordination of a project from conception to completion aimed at meeting the stated requirements and ensuring completion on time, within cost and to required quality standards. It is normally reserved for focused, non-repetitive, time-limited activities with some degree of risk and that are beyond the usual scope of operational activities for which the organization is responsible.” (Project Management (1.7 ProjectManagement.pdf), 2012). Project management includes the managing of resources, time, schedule and performance and costs of a project.
I will pay for the following article Endogenous Growth Theory. The work is to be 3 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page. The paper focuses on endogenous growth and utilises two major approaches to deal with the issue. These are namely the convergence controversy approach and the state of market competition (Romer). Romer’s contention is to fill out gaps in existing endogenous theory to make it more accountable for growth patterns in developing and developed countries.
Historically the neo-classical model has attributed economic growth to technology. Another basic assumption is that technology is freely available to all countries in the world since a perfect competition market exists (Rebelo). Romer uses the Cobb-Douglas production and cross-country regression models in order to highlight that endogenous factors can better explain such growth than exogenous models. He attributes growth to investments in human capital, innovation and knowledge whose spill over effects tend to augment the economy as a whole . The Philippines has been compared to the United States in order to bring out the savings rates that would be required by both nations to possess an equal level of economic growth. Romer argues that if the Philippines and the United States possessed the same level of technology, then their differing growth rates could be attributed to differences in labour productivity alone. It has been estimated that the share of investment in the United States is at least twice as large as it would have to be in the Philippines for a similar rate of growth. The lack of convergence between the growth rates for poorer countries and the more rich countries tends to indicate that the differences may be attributed to more than just technology. The rate of and amount of investment tends to differ between the North and the South. Using the neo-classical model, it would be hard to explain why the model attributes low investment in the North while that is not the case. The Summer-Heston model has been used in this regard to look into investments into human resources and capital to bring out the differences (Barro and Sala-i-Martin). Romer concludes this section by delineating that the only difference between developing and developed nations may not just be the availability of data that is blamed by neo-classical economists for a loosely fitting model. In the second section, Romer argues that aggregate level models had been missing in order to explain growth throughout the fifties, sixties and the seventies. He also expounds that certain assumptions have always been assumed as such but have not been explored to see their effects on growth models. It is generally assumed that there are many firms in an economy but it may be that these are concentrated to favour a monopolistic market structure. Scientific discoveries are not accessible to all entities operating in an economy since information is required to turn the scientific discovery into useful output. The shortage of information from one national economy to another (such as through trade secretes) signifies that scientific discoveries are not available to all and sundry. Another issue is the replication of physical activities which is not possible since all involved factors cannot be scaled up similarly all the time to receive an equally scaled up output. Technological developments are taken as having derived from factors external to the control of individuals. However, the application of human resources and attention is typically how technological progress is derived. Hence, assuming that technological progress is an exogenous factor is highly misleading (Sachs and Warner). Additionally, economic entities with the power to create new information and knowledge often possess the power to manipulate the information and knowledge into monopolistic systems.
Write 20 pages with APA style on The History of New Jerseys Musicians, Songwriters, and Singers. New Jersey was the third state to join the union. Many of the leaders in that period were well educated and cultured men who embodied the values of the European countries from where their ancestors came. Dutch, Swedish and British settlers imprinted aspects of their culture on the early New Jersey landscape, and this accounts for its relatively fast move from a traditional farming economy to extensive industrialization and a focus on trade and shipping, and eventually railways as well. Church music was, of course, a staple of cultural life in the early days, but the situation as far as music is concerned in the new colonies was very different from that in Europe: “the great European musical tradition grew over the years in the sheltered environment of courts and cathedrals. American music, on the other hand, made its own way in the rougher area of musical entrepreneurship and amateur music making.” . The so-called “middle colonies” of New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey contained a mix of peoples, and so from the beginning, there was British chamber music, Irish dance music, and Scandinavian square dancing based on Scandinavian traditional music with violins, all co-existing at the same time. New Jersey author and politician Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791) who took part in the creation of the American constitution was a very keen musician: “In the years before his premature death, by now a highly honored national figure and Federal District Court Judge, he seemed most proud to proclaim himself ‘the first Native of the United States who has produced a Musical Composition.’ ” .  .His compositions were a mix of concert pieces and sacred music, with .score and text, designed for the elite members of early American society in Philadelphia and New York. Throughout the nineteenth century, New Jersey, like most other American states, set about building concert halls and other venues to enable performances of both high brow and low brow music to its growing population but the majority of work performed was from Europe, which supplied most of the cultural influence on the state. All of this was to change, however, with the advent of the twentieth century.
The demographic mix of New Jersey’s larger towns such as Newark included a large number of African American citizens in the early twentieth century. From this background emerged a number of talented musicians who made their mark on the history of jazz in particular. .The genre of jazz had its origins in the plantations of the south, from early gospel and soul origins, it gradually spread northwards after the end of the civil war, along with former slaves and their families who headed north to start a new life in the industrial cities there. The first world war caused a boom in many of the manufacturing industries, and the ever-growing workforces prospered greatly during the first twenty years of the twentieth century.
Provide a 15 pages analysis while answering the following question: Energy Security in the USA. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. In a world where the “Peak Oil” has become part of everyday language and the Hubbert’s peak has been said to have been crossed, it is inevitable that the great powers engage in the 21st Century’s version of the great game. Akin to the earlier battles among the European and British colonialists for resource-rich countries as feedstock and markets for the Industrial Revolution, the modern-day version of the “Great Game” is between the US and China for control over the world’s supplies of oil and energy. This has taken on many dimensions that span across the continents of Asia and Africa and has led to both the countries using their political and military might to scour the regions for supplies and ensure that the energy security of their respective economies is guaranteed.
This paper looks at the energy security strategies of the US and China and shows how they fare against each other. The implications for the rest of the world are also discussed. Further, the need to diversify into alternative sources of energy like biofuels and nuclear energy is also discussed. The paper starts off by examining the current scenario with respect to the primary source of energy – oil- and the advent of the hydrocarbon economy.
Ever since the advent of the “Hydrocarbon man” as a metaphor for the world economy that runs primarily on oil as the source of energy, the great powers of the world have been in a constant battle for access and privileged use of this resource. As Toffler (1980) says, the first wave of the change in human society was the shift to agriculture and the second wave was that of the industrial revolution and the use of coal as the source of energy. Between the 18th and the 20th century, oil quickly replaced coal as literally the “lubricant” by which the industrial and transport infrastructure runs.
Hi, need to submit a 2000 words paper on the topic The Myocardial Infarction Case. Four pieces of assessment data The key pieces of assessment data include: the elevation of serum cardiac troponin levels (cTnT) diagnosed by collecting and testing of the blood. breathlessness, diagnosed by the observation of shortness of breath. appearing pale and tired, diagnosed by observing the patients feeling. patient feeling tired, fatigued, weak and nausea. the detection of heart sound S3 with no adventitious lung sounds or peripheral oedema. and prior history of heart failure as diagnosed by her doctor earlier. and the data of the 12- lead ECG which shows 2mm elevation in anterior leads of V1-V4 with the Q waves in inferior leads 11, 11 and a VF. McCaffery does not complain of chest pain, which is a symptom of acute myocardial infarction the reason for not having chest pain stems from her age and that she is diabetic. Davidson (2008) states that old and diabetic patients experience silent or non-pain myocardial infarction. Pathophysiology of the data pieces of assessment The pathophysiology of the Electrocardiograph (ECG) and the elevation of serum cardiac troponin (TP) piece data.
Hi, I am looking for someone to write an article on developing effective teamwork in organisations Paper must be at least 3000 words. Please, no plagiarized work! Evaluation of the organizational theories and approaches with examples 12 3.Ways of using motivational theories in organisations 13 Task 1. Impact of leadership styles on motivation levels in organizations in periods of change 13 Task2a. 3 motivational theories 13 Task 2b. 3 workplace situations for the 3 motivational theories 14 Task 2c. Comparison and evaluation of theories against set criteria of ‘benefits of motivational theories’ for managers 14 4.Developing effective teamwork in organizations 15 Task 1. Review workforce in the organization with regards to group behaviours 15 Task 2a. 4 factors to be considered for building effective teams 15 Task 2b. Contribution of 4 factors towards development of teamwork 15 Task 2c. How the 4 factors can inhibit development of teamwork 16 Task 3. Evaluation of the impact of technology on team functioning in the organization 16 Reference 18 Context The project presents the context of British Petroleum, which accounts for one of the leading oil and gas companies in the world. The organization is known for its immense success in providing customers with fuel, energy, retail services and petrochemical products which is required in their daily lives. The company’s unique feature lies in its sophisticated technology usage and techniques which it uses for finding natural gases and oil under the surface of the earth. The organization earns the reputation of constantly updating its scientific techniques and tools used in its methods and practices and responding to customers’ needs and requirements promptly and successfully. The efficiency and competency demonstrated by the company truly reflects through its organizational culture and structure. It also demonstrates perfect leadership styles in different situations and needs. The impacts of effective leadership shows through its ability in enhancing motivations of individuals in the organization such that it proves itself as one of the most preferred and attractive employer to work with. The organization’s effective and efficient team management styles also accounts for one of the main factors for success. The project proceeds with the description of the organizational structure and culture of British Petroleum and way it impacts on the business performance. The different approaches to leadership and management are discussed in this context. Finally the impact of technology and its influence on the team functioning in the organization is provided in the project. 1. Relationship between organization structure and culture Task 1a. Organizational structures British Petroleum reflects a geographically based organizational structure, particularly because of its large overseas sales which do not necessarily remain dominated by any single geographic territory. Global area structures are generally seen in organizations having narrow product lines. for example, the automobile organizations, cosmetics, containers, pharmaceuticals as well as food and beverages (John & Gillies, 1996, p.278). On the other hand the organizational structure of General Electric demonstrates a product divisional structure. The multinational organization is structured according to the product divisions which exist across the world.
Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on risk management process. The second step that makes up the process of risk management is based on the assessment of the likelihood and outcomes of the risk. This means that the frequency and probability of the risk are measured in conjunction with the severity of its outcomes. 3) Create Controls and Make Right Decisions The third step in the risk management process is the formulation of control measures for minimizing risks. R. S. Khatta (2008) elaborates that controls are most effective when the causes that lead to risk are effectively dealt with. 4) Making Right Decisions The decision committee then reviews the control options and implements those which reduce the possibility of risks to a minimum. Such decisions are highly dependent on the cost. 5) Monitoring and Evaluating Controls The controls being implemented need to be evaluated precisely. Constant monitoring of controls aimed at minimizing risks is also essential. Feedbacks are generated so as to analyze the effectiveness of controls (Steven S. Wilder, 1997). Role of the Project Manager in Risk Management Process John Bartlett (2004) writes that without any second thought, a project manager can be called as the champion of the risk management process. A project manager is the one who has the responsibility of ensuring that the project is being run as planned and the entire team is enthusiastically engaged. He actively communicates with the suppliers and contractors and has access to the updated financial data. Few of the roles of the project manager in the risk management process include ensuring the implementation of the risk management process in the project. A project manager assesses the possible occurrence and severity level of the risk. .
Compose a 1500 words assignment on the usage of made in for the segmented products. Needs to be plagiarism free! The command of the market has been linked to the efficiency of the product and the considered aspect of the economy. Such allows for the consideration of advanced technology and improvement in the economics of the cost towards the address of the rivals under practice. The superiority among the rivals allows for the conceptualization of the eventual ability they extend in the considered domination, as well as in the out-positioning of inferior products. The stationing of different arms of production under geographical distinctions allows for the reflection of the challenge they stand to offer with respect to the perspective concept of state recognition.
Apparently, goods desire to be recognized alongside the state of origin. However, the inclusion of different states or countries in the process of production only assists in the complication of the entire acknowledgment process. Such allows for the reflection of the immediate challenges that may be related to the shipping of products with a source complication (Scheve, 2002). Various approaches have been considered to be associated with the eventual process of development and allocation of the “made in” tag. Allowing a state to consider a product to be manufactured in its territory allows for the improvement in its global perception of technology. However, the producing authority may not have had a comprehensive manner upon which the process of filing of the respective descriptions of rights and protocols are advised.
Complete 3 pages APA formatted article: In 1935, long after Reconstruction had ended, civil rights activist W. E. B. Du Bois asserted that the attempt to make black. Chuan Liu Hist 100 18 October Introduction The American civil war was the most deadly in the American history. The war was fought by the North and the South from 1861 to 1865 as a result of the South seceding from the union. The South depended on cotton plantations thus wanted to maintain slavery at all cost. The North being the stronger of the two in terms of economic and military endowment won the war. The South was destroyed and thus the period that followed was that of Reconstruction which gave hope to the African-Americans of gaining citizenship and equal rights. According to Mooney the famous reconstruction clause “forty acres and a mule” for the freed slaves was music to the ears and was propagated by the radical Republicans. In the end, the freed people’s hopes were ruined by the failed reconstruction. This paper will argue that the attempt to make black men American citizens during Reconstruction was a splendid failure as even though black suffrage was granted, no significant land redistribution was achieved. Without land, the Blacks felt worse of than they were under slavery. The North and the South also united at the expense of blacks leaving them without any protection and reversing all the gains made. Racial inequality continued until 1960s, 100 years after the end of slavery. The goal of Radical Reconstruction from onset was racial equality. The Radical Republicans believed that all races deserved to enjoy equal rights such as voting, enjoying public services and facilities, owning land, fair trial, and education among others (Danielle 1-5). The first reconstruction efforts were led by the sitting presidents. Abraham Lincoln was for moderate Reconstruction but the radicals wanted stringent measures like seizing plantations and giving them to former slaves. The task of redistributing confiscated land was given to freedmen bureaus. These bureaus also ensured African-American rights were not violated thus ensuring free labor, schools, giving aid to destitutes and settling disputes between races (Mooney 99). Therefore, when Andrew Johnson came to power in 1865 the Radical Republicans thought he would deliver hope for the black Americans. Johnson, though a former slave owner, hated wealthy South planters and blamed them for the secession thus deserving punishment (Mooney 98). However, Johnson viewed the African-Americans as landless and rightless laborers who had no role to play in the Reconstruction efforts. As a result, his Reconstruction efforts were aimed at uniting the North and the South and had little concern for freed people (Danielle 2). His approach entailed making it easy for the rebels to rejoin the Union and ignoring radical measures set by Radical Republicans. His support for black suffrage was very weak giving advantage to Southerners to deny the Blacks any rights. According to Mooney: “Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction or “restoration” as he called it… was greeted with relief by white Southerners” (Mooney 99). His Reconstruction terms were very simple and friendly to the rebel states contrary to what Radical Republicans had envisaged. First, he did not make it compulsory for the states to grant suffrage to African-Americans or to enact laws protecting the former slaves. As such, each state could enact its own laws to control voting rights. Johnson also made an amnesty proclamation thereby pardoning many confederate states. According to Mooney (99) he pardoned 100 confederates a day. These states could now have own constitutions and representation in the senate and House of Representatives. He also returned the confiscated land by the freedmen bureau to the owners in 1865. This left the Blacks worse off than they were before abolition of slavery as now they did not have land and could only work for the Southerners under wage labor contracts negotiated by the freedmen bureau. Moreover, Black Codes were passed which further limited the rights of African-Americans. These codes dictated hours of work and behavior required of the Blacks and vagrancy was considered a criminal offense liable to fines (Mooney 100). To make matters worse, when elections were held in 1866 the Southerners elected many former high confederates to congress. As such, the presidential Reconstruction did not meet the aspirations of the Radical Republicans it only served to anger them. The Radical Republicans were fed up with the presidential Reconstruction and it was high time they took over. According to “The Radical Republicans” media clip, reconstruction in the image of the radicals “meant the increase of democracy of representation, it meant the right of suffrage”(The Radical Republicans). They were able to takeover Reconstruction efforts from the president through their power in the congress. They then introduced more radical measures such as excluding the Southern representatives from congress and demanded prove of loyalty to the union in order to be accepted (Mooney 102). The Radical Republicans extended the life of freed people bureau to assist in Reconstruction efforts. The Civil Rights Act was also passed in 1866 which overturned the Black Codes. It gave all the persons born in U.S the right to enjoy equal protection under the law. As such, the African-Americans could now engage in contracts, could be witnesses in a court, and own land just like the Americans. This was a relief for Blacks and gave them renewed hope of citizenship. According to Mooney (102) the 1866 Act “transformed civil rights from state into a federal matter” leading to the enactment of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Fourteenth Amendment gave citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the U.S and subject to jurisdiction thereof” (Mooney 102). It ensured legal protection for the Blacks as it emphasized equality before the law regardless of race. However, the Amendment did not give the Blacks a right to vote (Danielle 3). It thus did not guarantee equal suffrage. The South was not keen on enfranchising freed men leading to race riots in July 1866 (Mooney 103). The Republicans took advantage of the riots to gain the Black vote and victory in the 1866 elections. Republicans thus took control of the congress and passes the Reconstruction Acts of 1867. Under this Act, the South was put under federal military authority as now the federal government was in control of Reconstruction (103). States were also required to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment. As such, both Black and White could vote constitutional convention delegates. By 1868 when Ulysses Grant came to power, many Blacks could vote and hold offices thus enabling them to ensure fair trials and free public education and by 1870, the freed men’s bureau had established more than 4300 schools (Danielle 3). The Blacks could also demand for land leading to land reforms. However, some Northerners were against confiscation therefore, land redistribution was out of question. Instead, a system known as sharecropping emerged whereby the Blacks entered a contract with landowners to work in the land and give the landlord a fixed share of their produce (Mooney 104). In return, the Blacks got tools, farm equipments and seeds. This led to the growth of the credit system that disadvantaged the Blacks. In the end, the Republicans were unable to confiscate rebel property for former slaves. The Reconstruction Act 1867 was followed by the Fifteenth Amendment ratified in 1870 and which abolished racial restriction on voting (Mooney 106). This allowed the Blacks freedom to vote despite their previous condition of servitude. However, this was accompanied by terror unleashed by such gangs as Ku Klux Klan and White League in the South. According to “Black Suffrage and the Ku Klux Klan” media clip, it was true for southerners that “if you grew up in a society for centuries that you have been taught that [black people] are your racial inferior, its very hard to accept the numerous social change involved in their emancipation”(Black Suffrage and the Ku Klux Klan). These terror gangs restricted the Blacks from enjoying their rights such as voting, serving on juries and holding office thus ensuring “white supremacy” was maintained. In 1870 and 1871, Enforcement Acts were passed which would ensure the states complied with the Fifteenth Amendment and to suppress the Ku Klux Klan. The Whites were bent on maintaining “white supremacy” at all cost. As such, the White conservatives insisted that the Blacks were not fit to vote or hold office (Mooney 107). They also campaigned to convince other Whites that the Republicans were corrupt thus not worthy to lead the government. Some Whites believed this especially due to the rising state taxes leading to loss of votes for the Republicans. Even the Northerners were tired of the rising state taxes to maintain blacks in the face of an economic depression in 1873. These conservatives were regarded as redeemers and their main aim was to ensure the Democratic Party ruled in all confederate states or what they called “home rule”. The White League used military tactics to threaten and intimidate all Republicans voters whether Black or White in the South thus gain numerical advantage and win elections. For example, in Mississippi the redeemers used intimidation, violence and economic coercion to win the elections (Mooney 108). Similar tactics were used by other states under Republican control in the 1876 elections to redeem themselves leading to death of Reconstruction. In this election, Democrats won most seats and the presidency but the Republicans disputed the results due to mass violence in the elections. The results were reversed and a compromise was reached to have Hayes get the presidency and in return cede control over Southern states. The election of Rutherford B. Hayes as president in 1877 through a compromise was the last blow. He made it easy for Democrats to assume control and scatter reconstruction efforts. In the end, the Northern and Southern Whites united as they realized they were more superior to Blacks thus ruining freed people’s hopes of gaining racial equality. The Republicans no longer concentrated on ensuring African-Americans rights were not violated and neither did the Supreme Court. The Jim Crow laws were passed in 1883 which removed important sections from the Civil Rights Act of 1875 thus undermining the Black rights. The Act was eventually declared unconstitutional and the Supreme Court upheld these laws in the Plessy v Ferguson decision of 1896. The decision was based on the principle of “separate but equal”. Having separate facilicities for the Whites and Blacks did not mean inequality and as such did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment. It thus advocated racial segregation. The problem with this principle was that those separate facilities were never equal. According to Jim Crow laws, the Blacks did not deserve to enjoy equal rights and privileges as the whites. According to Mooney: “Jim Crow, blessed by the Supreme Court of the United States, structured race relations in South until the 1960s, one hundred years after the end of slavery” (Mooney 109). Racial segregation was legalized. Blacks were disenfranchised through poll taxes and literacy tests, lynching or illegal killings increased and so did extra-legal violence. All gains made during reconstruction went down into the drain. Indeed, Reconstruction was not just a failure but a splendid failure as W.E.B Dubois asserted. Conclusion “The attempt to make black men American citizens was all a failure, but a splendid failure”. W.E.B.Dubois was not wrong when he made these comments. The period after the Civil war was that of Reconstruction led by the Republican presidents but propelled by the radical Republicans. The main goal of Reconstruction was to ensure equality before the law for the black citizens through the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments as well as the Civil Rights Act of 1866. The blacks were given land, rights to vote and hold office, access to public services and facilities without discrimination and free labor. However, these were short-lived as the Ku Klux Klan and the White League unleashed terror on the blacks and Republicans in the South in general. The presidents (Johnson and Hayes except Grant) who assumed office after Lincoln had no will to ensure citizenship for the African-Americans leading to unity for the North and South at the expense of blacks. Although black suffrage was enhanced, no significant land redistribution was achieved. This made the freedmen to feel worse off than they were during slavery. It also made them incur a lot of debts through the sharecropping compromise. All gains made went to the drain with the Jim Crow laws and Supreme Court decisions which enhanced segregation and white supremacy. Reconstruction was thus a total failure. Works Cited Danielle, Alexander. “Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction”. Humanities, 25.1(2004): 1-6 Media Clip: “The Radical Republicans” Media Clip: “Black Suffrage and the Ku Klux Klan” Mooney, Matthew. The Growth of American Civilization. 2013.
You will prepare and submit a term paper on The Effectiveness and Use of Sustainable Tourism in the World. Your paper should be a minimum of 1000 words in length. Tourism is where a person or people travel to and stays at a place that is distinct from their usual environment, and stay there for any length of time between one night and one year. The purpose of tourism is frequently leisure, but it may also include aspects such as business and visiting friends or family (Page and Connell, 2006). Tourism has been increasing as an activity in recent years as the expendable income of many individuals has increased, as well as transportation between cities and countries becoming faster, cheaper and more efficient (Smith and Eadington, 1992). Tourism provides income and economic stability for many places as well as increasing how well known they are worldwide. For example, the state of Monaco has used tourism as its main source of income since the Second World War (D’Hauteserre, 2005). As a consequence, the state has fared very well economically, with one of the highest standards of living worldwide as well as a long life expectancy (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011). This shows that tourism can be an extremely important business venture, and indeed it is practiced worldwide.
In the 1990s tourism was seen as a low-impact venture that consumed little to no resources. This is because in many countries, especially those that are developing tourism makes use of areas that are not being used otherwise or are of low value (Goessling, 2000). However, there has been a growing realization that tourism is having a sign on the ecological environment as well as having strong social and cultural effects (Galvani, 2005). An example of this is gambling, which is a prevalent tourist activity, often taking place in casinos with entire resorts and communities designed around them. While these are effective as a tourist destination they also haven for prostitution and crime (Pizam and Pokela, 1985). Tourism also has a sign on indigenous populations, often taking advantage of their culture and customs for economic benefits. .
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